Tragic Story Of Partition

    Dr Bharat Desai

    The only reason for the India-Pakistan partition was Congress - a few Congress leaders who were old, tired, not ready to fight anymore and had a deep political desire of getting power at the earliest. All this made them accept partition without much protest and fighting.

    One of the most important chapters in Indian history (and equally so for Pakistan) is the partition of the nation in 1947. This article is H V Seshadri's book “The Tragic Story Of Partition” reviewed by Dr Bharat M Desai.

    One of the most important chapters in Indian history (and equally so for Pakistan) is the partition of the nation in 1947. This article is a review of the book “The Tragic Story Of Partition” by H V Sheshadri.

    • और देश बट गया (Hindi)
    • વિભાજનની કરુણાંતિકા (Gujarati)
    • Translated in Gujarati by Nalin Pandya, Kishor Makwana, and Bhagirath Desai
    • Pages: 294, Price: Rs. 90
    • Published by Sadhana Pustaka Prakashan, Ram Nivas, Baliyakaka Marg, Near Juna Dhorbajar, Kankaria, Ahmedabad - 380028

    While writing book-review, I have to be sure that I do not rewrite the same book in detail. So my aim will be a brief introduction. At the same time, the information about the book should be precise and to the point, so the reader understands the subject and desires to read the said book. I will do that.

    On 15 August 1947, India was going to be "Independent" from British rule. What events lead to the partition of India in two is the subject of this book. Every patriotic and history-loving person must read this book.

    The author H V Sheshadri took all the pains to go into the details of this history with reference to Shripati Shasri’s (History professor of Pune) lectures in 1972 at Bengaluru – and – he did not hesitate in taking the help of reporter K R Malkani, historian Devendra Swarup, and others.

    Was the partition of India a must? The answer is big "vents leading to NO". This book describes in detail the events leading to partition and tells in the end how "Re-Union” is not impossible.

    I would like to tell this in three parts:

    1. Chronology,
    2. Interpretation and
    3. Reunion.

    1. Chronology of Events Leading to Partition


    Freedom Struggle: Hindus and Muslims protested British rule in one voice and started a freedom struggle. Here is when British rulers found out the way the "DIVIDE AND RULE" policy was the only way out for the continuation of rule. So they promoted Muslims and gave them free gifts of land captured from Hindus during the said war. (40)


    1. Indian National Congress was formed by British Hume in support of British rule. The purpose told was social and political reforms.
    2. Christianity: British sent missionaries for the conversion of poor, backward, forest residents and Harijans who supported the British after conversion to Christianity.
    3. English education and forming an elite class: Lord Mackole gave special teachings of English to qualify Indians. The ‘English knowing’ new class of people was formed who separated themselves from other Indians to believe them 'elite' class – superior to others. They unknowingly united themselves with English people and supported them.


    Anglo-Oriental-Defense Association: Theodor Beck (Principal of Aligarh College) formed this association for Muslims' rights protection and for getting support for British rule from Muslims.


    Indian National Congress at Lucknow annual meeting gave special attractions to Muslims like free tickets for conferences, free food, free Muslim traditional dress, and Rs. 10 daily allowances at conferences to get their support against the British and make them loyal to Congress.


    Division of Bengal: Viceroy Lord Curzon declared the division of Bengal for making it a Muslim heaven known as Dar-ul-Islam. (46)


    1. 1. Viceroy Lord Minto encouraged Muslims against Hindus with the help of Nawab Mohsin-Ul-Mulk of Aligarh.
    2. Monte-Minto Law for separate voters council for Muslims and Sikhs to divide them from Hindus. (51)
    3. 30-December-1906 Muslim league formed at the All Muslim conference held at Dhaka under the leadership of Nawab Salimulla Khan and declared Aga Khan as permanent Chairman.


    Congress-Muslim League pact on giving separate voting right on the basis of religion to Muslims and Sikhs. (71)


    Khilafat Movement described Khalifa of Turkistan as the Sultan representing Allah and considered the head of the Islamic world. Gandhiji agreed to support the Khilafat movement and Congress followed. (76)


    Keralite Muslims doing Mopala agitation telling "Jehad" killed 2266 people, wounded 1615, converted 20,000 Hindus to Islam, and looted property worth 3 Crore rupees. (84)


    Indian National Conference annual meeting accepted under the leadership of Chitaranjan Das accepted that Hindu-Muslim unity is impossible.


    Gandhiji supported Muslims for their nature of being attackers and criticized Hindus for their so-called inherent cowardness.


    British Prime Minister MacDonald declared a "Religious decision" for giving reservations on a religious basis and separate voters council for Muslims, Sikhs, Dalits, Christians, Europeans, and Anglo-Indians showing their "DIVIDE and RULE" policy. (114)


    Word Pakistan was coined telling: P=Punjab, A=Afghanistan, K=Kashmir, S=Sindh and Tan=Baluchistan


    Kripps Mission offered conditional and partial Independence with the minority having a "veto" for saying "NO". It failed. British-Muslim League and the communist axis were established. (164)


    • 3-March-1943: Demand for Pakistan put forward in the assembly of Sindh.
    • Sindh assembly gave the slogan "Buy from Muslims only”.
    • Sindh assembly banned Aryasamaji's book Satya Prakash – 14. (166)


    9-September-1944: After 19 days of dialogue between Gandhiji and Mohmad Ali Jinah, Gandhiji surrendered to him. (170)


    16-August-1946 Direction Action Day. Calcutta Muslim League, Chief Minister Suharawardi, and Mayor Sharif Khan called "Jehad" and "Leke Rahenge Hindustan" killing 17000, wounding 15000, and making 1 lac homeless Hindus.


    3-June-1947: Declaration. British Government, Indian National Congress, and Muslim League agreed and declared partition of India. (212)

    2. Interpretation and Lesson

    Why partition of India took place?

    1. British Government's “Divide and Rule” policy.
    2. Muslim League leaders' fighting and religious policy (particularly of Aga Khan and Mohmad-Ali-Jinah).
    3. Indian National Congress' wrong politics and surrender (Mahatma Gandhiji and Rajaji in particular).

    Gandhiji told that the people, in general, were in favor of the partition of India. This was not based on truth or facts. Actually, the majority of Hindus and Muslims were against partition and were actively opposing it, but he opted to ignore it. (213)

    Indian National Congress, not only agreed to partition but it did not oppose any point put forward. (213)

    Neither the British nor Muslim League was strong enough to force Congress to accept partition.
    Simply, if Congress would have stuck to the demand of "United India", nobody could have succeeded. (257)

    This is the most important interpretation...

    The only reason for partition was Congress – few Congress leaders who were old, tired, not ready to fight any more and having political desire of getting power at the earliest. All this made them accept partition without much protest and fight. (274)

    This demands youth to join politics, instead of living it in the hands of tired, frustrated, and idle old.

    3. Can India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh unite again? (276)

    The answer is a big "YES".

    Examples in the History of all the divided nations trying and on the way to success are the following:

    1. North and South Korea
    2. Vietnam
    3. East and West Germany
    4. Ulster and Ireland


    1. Army and Defense expense of all three is high.
    2. Trade and Commerce demand unity for progress (The common market of Europe is the best example to follow).
    3. All three are complimentary to one another if united.
    4. Many blood relations are divided into three countries making meeting difficult or say nearly impossible.
    5. People from all three countries desire to unite. They know it is the dirty world politics of America and such other countries that do not allow unity.

    Well, all we need is an intense and sincere desire leading to try for the union.

    Read Original Article

    Author: H V Seshadri/ Publisher: Sahitya Sindhu Prakashana/ ISBN: 9788186595077

    This article is about History, India, Book, Politics, Pakistan, Review and written by Dr Bharat Desai. An ophthalmologist by qualification and profession, Dr Desai loves reading about topics ranging from world history to spirituality. He has also written about them at length. Read all their articles.

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